Peron's influence over Argentinian society had grown between 1943 and 1945; particularly as he had -simultaneously- been Vice President, Secretary of War and Labour Secretary.
In 1946 he became President, heading up a populist movement dubbed "Personism."
Trade unions were the bedrock of his support and social justice -"justicialisimo"- was apparently at the heart of his programme. A minimum wage, salary increases, paid holidays and other welfare measures soon followed. So too did nationalisation of, for instance, the British owned railways (Kinderley 2006).
His wife -Eva Peron- also played a key role, speaking out on behalf of the homeless and helping secure women the vote.
In 1949 the constitutional ban on re-election was removed but after Peron was returned as President for a second time in 1952 his regime began to unravel.
An economic downturn led to a pay freeze that upset Peronist supporters in the labour unions. Opposition to his government was repressed, censorship intensified and clashes even followed with the church. Peron -minus Eva who had died in 1952- was in deep trouble.
In 1955 he was unseated in a coup and he ended up in exile in Spain. He didn't return to Argentina until 1973. Again he was President. But his third term was shortlived. He died on 1 July 1974.
His third wife, Isabel, took over fronting up a hard line regime. State sponsored paramilitaries -"Tripe A"- targetted progressives. Peronism was increasingly split between radicals and arch-Conservatives.
With hyper-inflation, guerilla activity and right wing death squads, civilian rule was doomed. A military junta -to be headed by General Videla- seized power in March 1976. The "Dirty War" against those Videla accused of "spreading ideas contrary to Western civilisation" was about to begin.